Ezra 2 and Nehemiah 7 are listings of numbered people from different families. The chapters represent the statistics of the same families, but they are not identical. I have produced a grid below that lists the families that do not match. If you would like to see the grid comparing all families in Ezra 2 and Nehemiah 7, go here.
Of 39 entries (verses), 17 do not match. They are listed below.
|Ezra 2||Nehemiah 7||
|5 the sons of Arah, 775||10 the sons of Arah, 652||123|
|6 the sons of Pahath-moab of the sons of Jeshua and Joab, 2,812||11 the sons of Pahath-moab of the sons of Jeshua and Joab, 2,818||6|
|8 the sons of Zattu, 945||13 the sons of Zattu, 845||100|
|10 the sons of Bani, 642||15 the sons of Binnui, 648||6|
|11 the sons of Bebai, 623||16 the sons of Bebai, 628||5|
|12 the sons of Azgad, 1,222||17 the sons of Azgad, 2,322||1,100|
|13 the sons of Adonikam, 666||18 the sons of Adonikam, 667||1|
|14 the sons of Bigvai, 2,056||19 the sons of Bigvai, 2,067||11|
|15 the sons of Adin, 454||20 the sons of Adin, 655||201|
|17 the sons of Bezai, 323||23 the sons of Bezai, 324||1|
|28 the men of Bethel and Ai, 223||32 the men of Bethel and Ai, 123||100|
|33 the sons of Lod, Hadid, and Ono, 725||37 the sons of Lod, Hadid, and Ono, 721||4|
|35 the sons of Senaah, 3,630.||38 the sons of Senaah, 3,930.||300|
|41 The singers: the sons of Asaph, 128||44 The singers: the sons of Asaph, 148||20|
|42 The sons of the gatekeepers: the sons of Shallum, the sons of Ater, the sons of Talmon, the sons of Akkub, the sons of Hatita, the sons of Shobai, in all 139||45 The gatekeepers: the sons of Shallum, the sons of Ater, the sons of Talmon, the sons of Akkub, the sons of Hatita, the sons of Shobai, 138||1|
|59 and 60 list several names with one total of 652||61 and 62 list numerous names with one total of 642||10|
|65 besides their male and female servants, who numbered 7,337; and they had 200 singing men and women.||67 besides their male and their female servants, of whom there were 7,337; and they had 245 male and female singers.||45 (singers)|
It is obvious from the above table, that there were many statistical differences between Ezra and Nehemiah. Though most of them are identical, some do not match. Why? The answer is simple.
Ezra was written no later than 450 B.C.1 Nehemiah should be dated during the reign of Artexerxes 1 (464-423 B.C.).2 According to the book, "Talk Thru the Bible," Ezra was written about 538-516 B.C.3 where Nehemiah was written around 444-425 B.C.4 Therefore, the dates of writing are different and the statistical differences can easily be accounted for by considering that during the difference of years, people died, families grew, etc.
I must note that there is a small percentage of copyist errors in numbers throughout the Hebrew Scriptures. It is certainly possible that some of the numbers differ due to copyist mistakes. Nevertheless, the difference in dates of writing can certainly account for the difference in numbers.