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Filioque is the doctrine that the Holy Spirit proceeds equally from both the Father and the Son.  It is the double processon of the Holy Spirit.


  • "The dogmatic formula expressing the Double Procession of the Holy Spirit (q.v.), added by the W. Church to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan *Creed immediately after the words ‘the Holy Spirit … who proceedeth from the Father’. It is no part of the original Creed, but is first met with as an interpolation (acc. to the usual texts) at the Third Council of Toledo (589)."1
  • "Phrase inserted into the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (381) at the Council of Toledo (589) to say that the Holy Spirit proceeds from both Father and Son (double procession) in the Trinity. It was rejected by the Eastern church (1054) and was part of the reason for the East-West church schism. See also Nicene Creed; Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed."2
  • 1. Cross, F. L., and Elizabeth A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford;  New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • 2. McKim, Donald K. (2014-04-21). The Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms, Second Edition: Revised and Expanded (Kindle Locations 5427-5430). Westminster John Knox Press. Kindle Edition.