What are the doctrines of Islam?

muslim man and quran

by Matt Slick

Note: All references are to the Quran (Koran) where applicable.


  1. There is only one God (5:73, 112:1-4).
  2. God is called Allah by Muslims (5:73).
  3. Allah sees all things (40:20) and is present everywhere (2:115, 7:7).
  4. Allah is the sole creator and sustainer of the universe (3:191).
  5. Allah is not a Trinity but is one (5:73).
  6. Allah is all-knowing (2:268, 10:61) and all-powerful (6:61-62).
  7. Allah created the heaven and earth (2:29, 6:1, 73, 25:61-62, 36:81, 46:33).

Salvation and Judgment

  1. Allah will judge all people on the day of judgment (3:30, 35:33-37, 99:6-8).
  2. If your good deeds exceed your bad deeds and you believe in Allah and sincerely repent of sins, you may go to heaven (3:135, 7:8-9, 21:47, 49:14, 66:8-9).
  3. There is an eternal hell for those who are not Muslims, not practicing Islam and not of the true faith (3:77).
  4. Hell is a place of unlimited capacity (50:30), eternal torment (2:39, 14:17, 25:65, 39:26), fire (9:63, 11:16, 25:11-12, 104:6-7), with boiling water (38:55-58, 55:43-44), where skin is burned and renewed (4:56), for unbelievers (3:13, 19:49) and Jinn (11:119), with faces covered with fire (14:49-50).
  5. There is a tree in hell, named Tree of Zaqqum, from which bad fruit is given and the damned are forced to eat (37:62-67, 44:43-48, 56:52-55).
  6. Heaven (Paradise), a Garden (79:41) of bliss and fruit (69:21-24), has rivers (3:198), with maidens pure and holy (4:57), and carpets and cushions (88:8-16).
  7. There will be a physical resurrection of all people (19:93-95) on the day of judgment (3:77, 15:25, 16:38, 42:29).
  8. Judgment is based on a person's sincere repentance (66:8-9) and righteous deeds (5:9, 24:26, 45:21-22, 64:7).


  1. There is an afterlife (2:154, 75:12).
  2. There are such things as angels, created by Allah, that are created from light. Angels are obedient slaves incapable of refusing to do Allahï's will. The angel Gabriel brought the revelation of the Koran to Muhammad (2:97).
  3. The Holy Spirit is the angel Gabriel (2:97, 16:102).
    1. There is no actual verse where the Holy Spirit is said to be Gabriel or is identified as Gabriel. These verses show that both the Holy Spirit and Gabriel brought down the revelation.
  4. Jinn are unseen beings created (51:56) from fire (15:27, 55:15) but are not angels. They have communities. There are good and bad Jinn.
  5. The Devil, called Iblis (2:34), is a bad Jinn.
  6. Jesus was a great prophet but not the son of God (9:30), is not divine (5:17, 75), and was not crucified (4:157).
  7. Muhammad is Allah's greatest and last prophet, and his message supercedes all other past prophets including Jesus.
  8. The Quran is Allah's word. He literally spoke it to Gabriel who gave it to Muhammad.
  9. There are other holy writings, but they are superceded by the Koran.
    1. The other works are
      1. Torah - the First Five books of Moses
      2. Injeel - the message that Jesus gave, written down, but no longer exists. The writings have been altered by scholars. Whatever agrees with the Qura is true.
      3. Zaboor - the Psalms1
  10. Pre-ordainment (Qadar) is the teaching that all things, good and bad, are preordained to occur.
  11. Fasting is to be observed during the month of Ramadan (2:185).
  12. Drinking alcohol is forbidden (2:219, 4:43, 5:93-94, 16:67).
  13. Gambling is forbidden (2:219, 5:90-94).
  14. Man is made from the dust of the earth (23:12).
  15. There is no last-minute repentance (4:18).

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  • 1. Many Muslims also believe that the Torah and Zeboor have been corrupted too.