What are the branches of Buddhism?

by Luke Wayne
3/22/16

It is impossible to quickly and meaningfully introduce every group, movement, sect, school of thought, and subdivision of Buddhism. The groups within the broad scope of Buddhism are many and diverse, and such an overly exhaustive list would not only be far too lengthy to be useful but would be ever changing and expanding. In any article such as this, therefore, some groups will inevitably be left out, and some lines will be drawn clearly that in reality can sometimes be a bit fuzzier. Still, if one wants to understand Buddhism, there are a few basic categories of Buddhist movements grasped, at least on a very basic level.

The Early Divisions

Several key divisions in Buddhisms first few centuries shaped how the religion would develop. While many schools and subgroups arose from them whose often minor distinctions are beyond the scope if this article, the broader categories that emerged are worth consideration:

Mahasanghika - The name means "great community"1 or "majority."2 This term refers to the larger group in Buddhism's earliest split. The Mahsanghika represented those who preferred a more liberal approach to interpreting the Buddha's teachings and to monastic practice.3 They proposed changes that faced opposition by conservative leaders who would become their rival faction, the "Sthaviravada."4 The Mahasanghika are considered by some to have foreshadowed or anticipated certain aspects of what would later develop into the Mahayana5 (discussed below).

Sthaviravada - The name means "School of Elders."6 Opposing the changes advocated by the Mahasanghika,7 these schools applied narrow, traditional interpretations and a very conservative approach to monastic practice.8 The Sthaviravada's concern for strict adherence to the words of the Buddha eventually led them to write down and codify those teachings.9 By the time the text was written, however, the same rigidity had led to many splits over the finer points of Buddhist philosophy and interpretation, with each faction recording its own differing version of Buddha's teachings.10

Sarvastivada - The name means "School that proclaims that everything is."11 This group resulted from an early split within the Sthaviravada12 which derived from debates over the nature of being and existence (as the group's name implies). Buddhism teaches that an individual "person" or "object" is no more than a fluctuating combination of ever-changing physical and mental forces or energies.13 The Sarvastivada taught that, while composite objects and persons themselves are impermanent and always changing from one moment to the next, in some sense these constituent elements that compose them exist and persist over time.14 Most forms of Buddhism today disagree with the Sarvastivada on this. They insist that there is not even the most elemental thing or substance that persists from one moment to the next. Each moment is connected only by a causal chain of entirely temporary and fleeting phenomena.15

Pudgalavada - The name refers to a school of thought related to "persons" (Pudgala).16 This seems to have become a distinct movement about two centuries after the death of the Buddha (3rd-2nd century BC)17 though some would suggest it did not fully develop until as late as the third century AD.18 Most forms of historic Buddhism have vehemently denied that there is any "self" that actually exists and persists over time,19 Indeed, they the idea of "self" as the chief illusion one must overcome on the path to enlightenment.20 The Pudgalavada, however, insisted that this rendered Buddhism incoherent. They pointed out that the life and teachings of the Buddha could only be understood consistently and meaningfully if one assumed there to be some sense in which individuals remained the same "person" over time. Ideas such as karma,21 rebirth,22 enlightenment,23 nirvana24 and the ideal of compassion25 only make sense if you and the others around you are enduring selves. This movement was popular in India.26 At its height around the 7th century AD, the largest Pudgalavada subgroup alone (called the Sammitiya) comprised about a quarter of all the Buddhist monks in India.27 The movement never made any major advances beyond India, however, and so was brought to an end around the 13th century AD28 when Buddhism as a whole was all but eliminated entirely in India by Muslim conquest and absorption back into the broader Hindu culture.29 This group is considered by most other Buddhists to be a heretical departure from true Buddhism.30

Theravada - The name means "the way of the elders."31 The Theravada schools derive from those within the Sthaviravada that disagreed with the Sarvastivada teachings and practices. They are also the schools whose cannon of writings represent the oldest comprehensive collection of the Buddha's teaching that has survived down to today.32 The Theravada believed and taught what would today be considered Buddhist orthodoxy regarding issues like the nature of being and the personal self. They maintained that the relationship between past and present objects was purely that of an endless series of causes and effects among ever-changing combinations of fleeting things. They thus considered the views of the Sarvastivada and later the Pudgalavada to be errant innovations on what they assumed to be Buddha's original doctrine. They are known for their devotion to the study of their vast cannon of Buddha's words33, which they believe to be a thorough, accurate, and sufficient representation of proper Buddhist teaching.34 Like all the early schools, they emphasize the responsibility of the individual for his or her own liberation and enlightenment.35 and have tended to put far greater emphasis on the monastic approach than later forms of Buddhism would.36 Theravada took root and thrived in Sri Lanka and Burma, and later spreading also to places like Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. They thus avoided the fate of other early schools that were lost when Buddhism was eliminated from India by the 13th century.37 Theravada is the only early school that has remained a dominant form of Buddhism down to this very day.

The Mahayana Schools

Gradually, from about the 1st century B.C. to the 4th century A.D., new texts attributed to Buddha and his closest followers began to circulate. These documents included concepts and doctrines seemingly unknown to any of the early schools listed above. They gained traction and slowly led to the development of new schools of Buddhism.38 These new movements still upheld essential core doctrines of the early schools, such as the four noble truths and the eightfold path. They diverged in stark ways, however, from previous forms of Buddhism and began a new chapter in Buddhist history. They differ more widely from one another than the early schools did, but they still hold certain central beliefs that unite them as a loosely connected movement in distinction from the previous schools. While some of these new schools thrived for a time in India, just like with the Theravada, those that have persisted down to today are those that spread or developed in other nations and so survived the end of Indian Buddhism in the 13th century.

Mahayana - The name means "the great vehicle"39 or "big raft".40 The old schools primarily emphasized individual enlightenment through self-effort and full time monastic devotion, and were thus called "Hinayana" or the "lesser vehicle"41 or "small raft."42 Mahayana is the very broad term given to the new schools whose message focused on the enlightenment of the masses and the possibility of nirvana for the laity as well as the monks.43 Many Mahayana believe that their traditions preserve actual teachings of the historical Buddha that the texts of the older schools failed to record. They also think of themselves as a corrective against what they perceive to be an exaggerated emphasis on an allegedly self-serving monasticism.44 Mahayana also believe, however, in an overarching, transcendent principle of enlightenment that has brought forth the truth through many enlightened ones in many generations. Thus, they do not always feel the need to assume that all of their sacred texts are authentically traceable back to the historical Buddha Gautama.45 Indeed, Mahayana generally hold that the man we call "Buddha" was merely a human receptacle of an eternal and transcendent Buddha principle of enlightenment46 that is in all things and guiding all things to ultimate awareness.47 The ideal man of the old Hinayana schools is called the "Arhat," or the perfected and enlighten disciple who purges himself of desire and worldly concern and with great discipline realizes nirvana.48 The Mahayana, however, held as their ideal the "bodhisattva", or an enlightened one who chooses not to fully transcend into nirvana but instead to remain in the cycle of rebirth so as to continue to help others attain enlightenment and freedom from suffering.49 Of course, to reach enlightenment and thus become a bodhisattva, one must become aware that they are not, in fact, a distinct and enduring person, and there are no other separate and permanent individuals for them to help. This doctrine, therefore, is somewhat paradoxical. As one Mahayana source puts it:

"Although innumerable beings have thus been led to Nirvana, in fact no being at all has been led to Nirvana. And why? If in a Bodhisattva the notion of a being should take place, he could not be called a Bodhi-being. And why? He is not to be called a Bodhi being in whom the notion of a self or of a being should take place, or the notion of a living soul or a person" 50

The old Hinayana Schools debated whether or not the essential phenomena that compose all apparent things in any given moment were themselves temporary or enduring. The Mahayana doctrine of "emptiness" teaches that even these basic constituent elements of all apparent things do not exist. Behind the veil, there is nothing at all that really is.51 Because of this, true wisdom does not understand any duality in anything.52 In the true nature of things, there is no good or evil, purity or impurity, fortune or misfortune, even existence or nonexistence.53 Indeed, the truly enlightened will ultimately see that there is no difference even between Nirvana and the suffering cycle of death and rebirth.54

The Pure Land Tradition - The name is derived from one of the schools central and most unique teachings.55 They claim that an ancient Buddha named Dharmakara56 or Buddha Amida57 made a crucial sacred vow that aids all who came after him. He vowed that he would not attain Nirvana unless it were so that all who desired enlightenment need only think of him58 and speak his name59 and they would be reborn in his pure, western land of bliss and enlightenment.60 The pure land teaching thus emphasizes reliance on a power outside of oneself rather than on one's own self-discipline. One need only hope in the vow of Buddha Amida and rejoice in his name,61 and you will be reborn in a paradise where enlightenment and nirvana can are attainable62 by the discouraged masses who hold no hope of reaching it amidst the distractions and corruptions of this life.63 This may at first seem out of step with Buddhism, but the "pure land" is a unique means to a very Buddhist end. All those born in the pure land will come to realize the impermanence of all things, to renounce all attachments, to devote themselves to the bodhisattva ideal, and will ultimately attain Nirvana.64 Pure Land Buddhism has made few inroads in the West but is by far the most influential school of Buddhist thought in places like Japan.65

Zen - The name is the Japanese translation of the Chinese title for the same Buddhist movement, "ch'an," which is itself derived from the Sanskrit word "dhyana" which means "meditation."66 The movement claims to trace its origins back to the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama. Buddha allegedly passed on through one particular disciple a wordless truth of enlightenment that transcended his mere verbal teachings grasped by his other followers.67 Central to Zen is this idea that true enlightenment is not only beyond words but that words (at least utilized in traditional communication) actually hinder enlightenment.68 Enlightenment is said to be a direct experience of reality as it truly is, which words are incapable of describing and can only confuse.69 Zen is openly and unapologetically full of contradictions and apparent logical absurdities.70 As one Zen author explains:

"Zen is one thing and logic another. When we fail to make this distinction and expect Zen to give us something logically consistent and intellectually illuminating, we altogether misinterpret the signification of Zen"71

This embrace of the absurd as a means to break out of the limits of logic and language and experience raw, transcendent reality can be seen most clearly in the "koan." A koan is a sort of meditative riddle consisting of a seeming irrational question. One is made to contemplate its answer as if it is not absurd at all, and to meditate on it until one arrives at something meaningful.72 Examples might be, "What was the appearance of your face before your ancestors were born?" or "A cow passes by a window. Its head, horns, and the four legs pass by. Why did not the tail pass by?" or the classic, "What is the sound of one hand clapping?"73 The Zen practitioner does not take the question lightly, and must not write it off as mere wordplay. Instead, he must singularly focus on it, sometimes literally for years, anticipating an epiphany.74 This practice is joined by other attempts to transcend rational and linguistic reality. Practitioners might spontaneously shout "Ho!" Masters occasionally physically strike their students.75 And, of course, there is the image most classically associated with Zen in the West, "zazen," or "seated meditation." The practitioners will sit seemingly for hours on end silently meditating with legs crossed in what is called the lotus position and with their eyes half closed in an unfocused, often downward gaze.76 The goal of all of these methods is to have an intuitive and inexpressible experience of what is called "Satori," which literally means "understanding." Satori is expressed somewhat poetically, even mystically, but ultimately comes down to the familiar Buddhist themes of the nonexistence of self and the interconnectedness of all things77 as well as the Mahayana teaching of emptiness and anti-duality.78 The experience of Satori is also expected to result in one leading others to pursue and experience enlightenment as well79 and thus gives expression to the Bodhisattva ideal of the broader Mahayana tradition.

Vajrayana - The name is typically translated "diamond vehicle," though the word "vajra" originally meant "thunderbolt" and referred to an Indian thunder god often mentioned in many early Buddhist texts.80 A late comer to the Buddhist scene, Vajrayana appeared some five centuries after the emergence of the earliest Mahayana movements.81 While technically a movement within the large umbrella of Mahayana,82 many find Vajrayana distinctive enough to think of it as a third path in Buddhism over against both the Hinayana and Mahayana schools of thought. While there are a few small Vajrayana schools in East Asia, particularly in Japan, the most significant and by far the most well known and influential Vajrayana school is Tibetan Buddhism. 83 Vajrayana Buddhism is particularly distinct in its incorporation of "tantra." Tantra refers to traditional mystical rituals and magical practices that were common among certain esoteric Hindu groups in India at the time of Vajrayana's first development.84 Vajrayana Buddhism reinterpreted these practices, made them their own, and brought them with them as they spread beyond the borders of India, adapting and developing them as they went.85 Unlike the typical American picture of the Zen monk meditating motionless in inward contemplation, the Vajrayana practitioner seeks enlightenment through elaborate series of active and ever moving rituals.86 They utilize repetitive incantations called "mantras",87 sacred bodily movements and gestures known as "mudras"88, the spiritual contemplation of religious icons and images of deities89 called "Mandalas",90 and a variety of sexual rituals91 under the direction of their gurus.92 All of these practices seek to utilize spiritual energy and power to aid in the pursuit of enlightenment and realization of nirvana.93 While the means employed are quite unlike those promoted by the teachers of other schools, they are still framed in a distinctively Buddhist paradigm toward the characteristic Buddhist goals of enlightenment and Nirvana. While this form of Buddhism is a small global minority, its highest leader, the Dalai Lama, is bar far most well known and widely respected proponent of Buddhism in the modern, western world.94

Buddhism in Modern America

While there is not yet a clearly defined and truly distinctive American school of Buddhism, we must note that a significant portion of Buddhism in America has taken on characteristics uncommon or even entirely unheard of in the history of Buddhism. In traditional Buddhism, meditation was a practice utilized almost exclusively by monks. The general population of Buddhist laity focused their efforts on proper conduct and ritual practices, concerned primarily with karma and rebirth. In American Buddhism, however, meditation is the central practice for all. While meditation has always been a feature of Buddhist practice, modern America has uniquely made it the principle focus of the religion.95 The central place of the Monk and the monastery has been supplanted by the lay meditator96 and the meditative retreat center.97 Indeed, the very motivation of the American Buddhist practitioner is often personal peace of mind98 and the publicized emotional and physical health benefits of "Buddhist mindfulness"99 rather than a desperate effort for liberation from an assumed suffering cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. American Buddhism has also relaxed or entirely abandoned the strict and supreme authority of gurus and masters and their veneration and reverence. It has set aside the traditional Buddhist distinctions between the roles and functions of men and women, promoting an egalitarian environment of Buddhist practice more reflective of American liberal ideals.100 American pluralism has created a historically unique environment where the lines between the variety of Buddhist schools are often blurred. Practitioners freely draw ideas from various strands of Buddhism without distinction.101 It is also not uncommon for an American Buddhist to claim Buddhism alongside other Eastern novelties such as Daoism or Hinduism, and profess to merge them with traditional "western" religions such as Catholicism, Judaism, or Christianity.102 It is also becoming increasingly common to see Buddhism combined with liberal humanitarian concerns, issues of "social justice," and environmentalism.103 All of this has led some to question whether this westernized "Buddhism" is really still Buddhism at all.104 Others wonder if perhaps this will bring about a new "yana" or "vehicle;" a whole new expression of Buddhism in contrast to the Mahayana and Hinayana schools.105 Either way, much of what calls itself Buddhism in America today differs significantly in priority, emphasis, belief, form, and practice from the Buddhism of the East and of history. In any dialogue we have, this is something we must keep in mind.

  • 1. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 27
  • 2. Thich Nhat Hanh, "The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching" (Broadway Books, 1998) 13
  • 3. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 27
  • 4. Thich Nhat Hanh, "The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching" (Broadway Books, 1998) 13
  • 5. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 27
  • 6. Thich Nhat Hanh, "The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching" (Broadway Books, 1998) 13
  • 7. ibid, 13
  • 8. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 27
  • 9. Thich Nhat Hanh, "The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching" (Broadway Books, 1998) 13
  • 10. ibid, 15
  • 11. ibid, 13
  • 12. ibid, 13
  • 13. Walpola Rahula, "What the Buddha Taught: Revised and Expanded Edition with Texts from Suttas and Dhammapada" (Grove Press, 2007) Kindle Edition, Chapter 2.
  • 14. Stephen Asma, "Buddha for Beginners" (For Beginners LLC, 2008) 122
  • 15. Walpola Rahula, "What the Buddha Taught: Revised and Expanded Edition with Texts from Suttas and Dhammapada" (Grove Press, 2007) Kindle Edition, Chapter 2
  • 16. Leonard Priestly, "Pudgalavada Buddhist Philosophy" Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource www.iep.utm.edu (Accessed 3/17/2016)
  • 17. ibid
  • 18. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 147
  • 19. Walpola Rahula, "What the Buddha Taught: Revised and Expanded Edition with Texts from Suttas and Dhammapada" (Grove Press, 2007) Kindle Edition, Chapter 2
  • 20. Rodney Smith, "Stepping Out of Self Deception" (Shambhala Publications, 2010) 6
  • 21. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 150
  • 22. ibid, 150
  • 23. ibid, 153
  • 24. Leonard Priestly, "Pudgalavada Buddhist Philosophy" Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource www.iep.utm.edu (Accessed 3/17/2016)
  • 25. ibid
  • 26. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 147
  • 27. Leonard Priestly, "Pudgalavada Buddhist Philosophy" Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource www.iep.utm.edu (Accessed 3/17/2016)
  • 28. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 147-148
  • 29. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 117-119
  • 30. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 147
  • 31. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 66
  • 32. ibid, 75
  • 33. ibid, 66
  • 34. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 28
  • 35. ibid, 30
  • 36. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 69
  • 37. ibid, 76
  • 38. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 34
  • 39. ibid, 34
  • 40. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 65
  • 41. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 34
  • 42. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 65
  • 43. ibid, 68
  • 44. Thich Nhat Hanh, "The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching" (Broadway Books, 1998) 16
  • 45. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 38
  • 46. "The Teaching of Buddha" (Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai, 1966) 31
  • 47. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 47-49
  • 48. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 68-69
  • 49. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 40
  • 50. ibid, 42
  • 51. ibid, 44
  • 52. "The Teaching of Buddha" (Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai, 1966) 61
  • 53. ibid, 62
  • 54. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 45
  • 55. ibid, 50
  • 56. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 189
  • 57. "The Teaching of Buddha" (Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai, 1966) 104
  • 58. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 50
  • 59. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 189
  • 60. "The Teaching of Buddha" (Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai, 1966) 104
  • 61. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 54
  • 62. "The Teaching of Buddha" (Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai, 1966) 105
  • 63. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 193
  • 64. "The Teaching of Buddha" (Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai, 1966) 106-107
  • 65. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 49
  • 66. ibid, 58, footnote 51
  • 67. ibid, 57
  • 68. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 92-94
  • 69. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 60
  • 70. ibid, 61
  • 71. D.T. Suzuki, "Essays in Zen: First Series" (Weidenfield, 1961) 16, cited in Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" pg 61-62
  • 72. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 61
  • 73. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 96
  • 74. ibid, 97
  • 75. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 61
  • 76. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 96
  • 77. ibid, 100
  • 78. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 62
  • 79. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 100-101
  • 80. ibid, 105
  • 81. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 62
  • 82. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 105
  • 83. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 63-64
  • 84. ibid, 63
  • 85. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 106
  • 86. ibid, 108-109
  • 87. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 63
  • 88. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 109
  • 89. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 63
  • 90. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 109
  • 91. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 63
  • 92. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 109
  • 93. ibid, 63
  • 94. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 67
  • 95. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 143
  • 96. ibid, 143
  • 97. Rodney Smith, "Stepping Out of Self Deception" (Shambhala Publications, 2010) 7
  • 98. ibid, 1
  • 99. ibid, xii
  • 100. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 144
  • 101. ibid, 145-146
  • 102. Keith Yandell and Harold Netland, "Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal" (IVP Academic, 2009) 77
  • 103. ibid, 78
  • 104. ibid, 79
  • 105. Houston Smith and Philip Novak "Buddhism: A Concise Introduction" (HarperCollins Publishers, 2003) 146